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英文語法表

令你更易了解語法規則和 句式結構

Pronouns, noun and prepositional phrases, determiners, etc.

Personal Pronouns 人稱代(名)詞

Other Pronouns

Demonstrative adjectives 指示代名詞

Existence – There are some... 存在位置 – 這裏有些...

What's the time?


To be - present, past, future

To be - present (am, are, is)

To be - past (was, were)

To be - future (will be)


Verb tenses summary 動詞

Simple Present Tense

Present Continuous Tense

Present Perfect Tense

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Simple Past Tense

Past Continuous Tense

Past Perfect Tense

Simple Future Tense

Modal verbs 情態動詞


Syntactic units: words, phrases, clauses, sentences, sentence chains:

Syntactic units

Word level

Phrase level

Clause level

Sentence level

Sentence chain level


See the following grammar tables on the English version of this page:

Articles - definite and indefinite

Specific and general - article usage

Determiners in noun phrases

Noun phrase

Prepositional phrase

Prepositional phrase as an adjunct

Active verb, passive verb and adjective form


Causative verbs

Irregular verbs

Countries, nationalities, people, languages

Personal Pronouns 人稱代(名)詞
Subject
pronoun
主語代
(名)詞
Object
pronoun
受詞代
(名)詞
Adjective
determiner
形容詞代
(名)詞
Possessive
pronoun
所屬關係的代
(名)詞
Reflexive
反身代詞
I me my mine myself
you you your yours yourself
he him his his himself
she her her hers herself
it it its its itself
we us our ours ourselves
you you your yours yourselves
they them their theirs themselves

Other pronouns
Pronoun types Forms Examples
Relative pronouns which, whose, whoever, whomever, who, whom, that the teacher that we like, the restaurant where I usually have dinner, the man whose wife has died
Interrogative Pronouns what, which, who, whom, whose Who is that? Whose car is it?
Demonstrative pronouns this, that, these, those this map, those roses
Indefinite Pronouns {some-, any-, every-, no-} + {-thing, -one, -body}; many, more, both, most; one, oneself somebody, no-one, everyone, anything; One does not drive one's own car. I like both. I can accept most.
Reciprocal pronoun each other, one another He and she hate each other's family.
Negative pronoun None I want none.
Intensive pronoun yourself, herself, himself, themselves, ourselves Tom himself cleaned the whole house. (He did it alone.)

A pronoun is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase


Demonstrative adjectives 指示代名詞
Referring to objects
關於物件
Close
Far
Pronoun
代(名)詞
Singular and uncountable noun
單數而不可數的名詞
this that it
Plural noun
眾數的名詞
these those they / them
Place
地方
here there ---

Existence – There are some... 存在位置 – 這裏有些...
Uncountable noun
不可數的名詞
Countable noun 可以數的名詞
Singular 單數
Countable noun 可以數的名詞
Plural 眾數
+ There is some money. There is a grammar book here. There are some students there.
- There isn't any money. There isn't a grammar book here. There aren't any students there.
? Is there any money?
Yes, there is.
No, there isn't.
Is there a grammar book here?
Yes, there is.
No, there isn't.
Are there any students there?
Yes, there are.
No, there aren't.

What's the time?
It’s …
3.05 five past three 2.55 five to three
4.10 ten past four 3.50 ten to four
5.15 quarter past five 4.45 quarter to five
6.20 twenty past six 5.40 twenty to six
7.25 twenty-five past seven 6.35 twenty-five to seven
8.30 half past eight 9.00 nine o’clock


To be - present, past, future

To be - present
Question words
提問字詞
Predicate 1A
述語
Subject
主語
Predicate 1B
述語
Predicate 2
述語
Other words
其他
My father is a language teacher.  
I am in class now.
The school is over there.
We are not students any more.
You aren't 132 years old.
Why are you not in the library with the others?
What time is it?
Who is there with her now?
Whose smartphone is that in the fish tank?
Whose friends are they?
Are your classmates nice?
Aren't I smart?  
Is she not your English tutor?  

To be - past
Question words
提問字詞
Predicate 1A
述語
Subject
主語
Predicate 1B
述語
Predicate 2
述語
Other words
其他
My father was a butcher.  
I was in class until 5.
The school was closed during the holiday.
We were not there.
You weren't nice to her.
Why were you not in the swimming pool this morning?
What time was it?
Who was at home with you yesterday?
Whose iPad was in your bag?
Whose parents were they?
Were your colleagues friendly?
Wasn't I on the list?  
Was she not your co-worker?  

To be - future
Question words
提問字詞
Predicate 1A
述語
Subject
主語
Predicate 1B
述語
Predicate 2
述語
Other words
其他
My son will be a super star.  
I will be in class until 6.
The office will be closed in summer.
We will not be there.
You won't be her husband.
Why will you not be at the meeting tomorrow morning?
What time will the funeral be?
Who will be at home with you tomorrow?
Whose iPhone will be on the table?
Whose girlfriend will she be?
Will he be friendly?
Wonn't I be on the shift?  
Will she not be your employee?  

Verb tenses summary 動詞
Past Present Future
Simple Simple Past
I sang
Simple Present
I sing
Simple Future
I will sing
Continuous Past Continuous
I was singing
Present Continuous
I am singing
Future Continuous
I will be singing
Perfect Past Perfect
I had sung
Present Perfect
I have sung
Future Perfect
I will have sung
Perfect
Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous
I had been singing
Present Perfect Continuous
I have been singing
Future Perfect Continuous
I will have been singing

Simple Present Tense
Question words
提問字詞
Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
述語
Subject
主語
Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
述語
Frequency
頻率
Predicate (Verb)
述語 (動詞)
Predicate and/or other words
其他
My brother never drinks milk.
Mr Jones rarely starts work at seven.
It doesn't usually do that.
I don't care about the grammar.
Who answers the phone in your office?
Which dress looks better?
What makes employees happy?
Do they have a fax machine?
Does your colleague speak English?
Don't you understand the rules?
Why do you not always follow the specification?
What do we start with?

Time words: never, always, every day, normally, often, seldom, rarely, sometimes, usually


Present Continuous Tense
Question words
提問字詞
Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
述語
Subject
主語
Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
述語
Predicate (Verb)
述語 (動詞)
Predicate and/or other words
其他
My father is watching TV.
I am visiting my friends tomorrow.
They aren't dancing.
Why are you not singing with us?
Who are you waiting for?
Who is driving my car?
What is happening?
Whose friends are coming tomorrow?
Are your colleagues playing tennis?
Aren't you coming with us?
Is she not sleeping in the other room?

Time words: now, at the moment, just, just now, Listen!, Look!, right now, (or a future time for future plan).


Present Perfect Tense
Question words
提問字詞
Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
述語
Subject
主語
Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
述語
Frequency
頻率
Predicate (Verb)
述語 (動詞)
Predicate and/or other words
其他
My brother has never drunk whisky.
They have already been to the bank.
The dog has just gone.  
I haven't seen him for 2 years.
  The tutor has not arrived yet.
Who has peed in my glass?
Which idiot has sent this virus?
What has made her crazy?
Have your parents ever been to Paris?
Has your colleague spoken to them yet?
Haven't you made your bed yet?
Why haven't you     called me?
What has he done this morning?

Time words: already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now, this morning, for two years, since 2012.


Present Perfect Continuous Tense
Question words
提問字詞
Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
述語
Subject
主語
Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
述語
Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
述語
Predicate (Verb)
述語 (動詞)
Predicate and/or other words
其他
She has been waiting since 1.
They have been dancing for 9 hours.
Who has been standing there for 3 hours?
How long have you   been collecting stamps?
What has he been doing this morning?

Time words: all day, for six years, since April, how long?, the whole week.


Simple Past Tense
Question words
提問字詞
Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
述語
Subject
主語
Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
述語
  Predicate (Verb)
述語 (動詞)
Predicate and/or other words
其他
My brother   drank some milk yesterday.
Mr Jones   started the engine.
Her idea did not   work.  
I didn't do that.
Who answered the phone in your office?
Which suit looked better?
What made you bored?
Did you use whatsapp in 2011?
Did your teacher speak Cantonese?
Didn't you read the rules?
Why did you not   follow the specification?
What did we learn the day before yesterday?


Past Continuous Tense
Question words
提問字詞
Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
述語
Subject
主語
Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
述語
Predicate (Verb)
述語 (動詞)
Predicate and/or other words
其他
The dog was playing with a bone.
I was reading at noon.
They weren't skiing.
Why were you not dancing with them?
Who were you talking to?
Who was riding my bike?
What was happening when you arrived?
Whose parents were visiting you?
Were your students preparing for HKDSE?
Weren't you cooking while I was cleaning?
Was he not using whatsapp at that time?

Time words: while, at 5 o'clock, when.


Past Perfect Tense
Question words
提問字詞
Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
述語
Subject
主語
Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
述語
Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
述語
Predicate (Verb)
述語 (動詞)
Predicate and/or other words
其他
My aunt had never drunk Pepsi.
The tourists had been to the post office before 2 p.m.
The thief had left before the police arrived.  
The groom had not seen the bride before our wedding day.
  The shop assistant had not applied for another job.
Who had taken my skate board?
Which candidate had sent this letter before the ad?
What had made her do that?
Had your parents been to Hong Kong before 1997?
Had your classmate spoken to her before I spoke to her?
Hadn't you cleaned the toilet before breakfast?
Why hadn't you     notified me before the deadline?
What had she accomplished before you hired her?

Time words for Past Perfect Tense: before, when


Simple Future Tense
Question words
提問字詞
Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
述語
Subject
主語
Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
述語
Frequency
頻率
Predicate (Verb)
述語 (動詞)
Predicate and/or other words
其他
My father will never talk to you.
They will go to the post office.
The dog will bite me.
I won't wait for you.
  The tutor will not come today.
Who will go shopping?
Which student will answer this first?
What will make her mad?
Will your parents ever visit us?
Will your colleague not quit her job?
Won't you call your friend?
Why will you not go home?
What will he do tomorrow morning?



Syntactic units: words, phrases, clauses, sentences, sentence chains

Syntactic units
Sentence chain
Sentence
Clause
Phrase
Word

English grammar rules can be grouped and studied at five levels:
words < phrases < clauses < sentences < sentence chains.

The < symbol indicates that there is usually a natural progression in size of the syntactic units in spoken and written messages. However, it is not always the case. For example, a phrase can contain a clause and a sentence can be just one word.

There are specific grammar rules at each level, starting from the phrase level, that tell us how to form longer message elements by combining shorter ones from the same or other syntactic levels. For instance, how to combine words, phrases and even clauses into a longer phrase.

1, Word level - word classes

Words can be sorted into word classes depending on what roles they play in the sentence. The word classes are noun, verb, adverb, adjective, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, interjection, etc.

A word class can have sub-classes. For example, there are subject pronouns, object pronouns and possessive pronouns.

Word level analysis
subject pronoun adverb verb adjective noun preposition object pronoun
He quickly made hot tea for her.

2, Phrase level

A phrase is two or more words that do not contain the subject-predicate pair to form a clause but are connected together by grammar rules, meaning or logic and they function as a unit.

Phrase types: noun phrase, adjective phrase, verb phrase, prepositional phrase, infinitive phrase, present and past participle phrase, gerund phrase, and exclamation / interjection phrase.

A phrase has a main part called head and other parts that are referred to by different names: specifier, modifier, dependent, object or complement. Sometime one word is also considered a phrase for analytical purpose.

Phrase level analysis
noun phrase verb phrase adverbial phrase prepositional phrase
noun phrase prepositional phrase
preposition noun phrase preposition noun phrase
The young driver with the glasses was driving quite carelessly through the park.

3, Clause level

A clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete thought. A standard, complete clause has a subject and a predicate, which includes a verb, while a phrase don't. Clauses can be embedded inside phrases and vice versa. An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence.

Clause level analysis
subject predicate optional parts
The very ill patient gave the doctor his test report a week ago.

4, Sentence level

A standard, complete English sentence has at least one independent clause.

An independent clause is the clause that can stand alone as a sentence.
A dependent clause is a clause that provides an independent clause with additional information, but which cannot stand alone as a sentence.
Dependent clauses include noun clauses, relative (adjectival) clauses, and adverbial clauses.

A simple sentence consists of a single independent clause with no dependent clauses.
A compound sentence consists of multiple independent clauses with no dependent clauses. These clauses are joined together using conjunctions, punctuation, or both.
A complex sentence consists of one independent clause and at least one dependent clause.
A compound–complex sentence consists of multiple independent clauses, at least one of which has at least one dependent clause.
An incomplete sentence does not have a subject and/or a predicate.

Sentence level analysis
Sentence type First clause Conjuction Other clauses
Simple: one independent clause She went to Ocean Park.
Compound: two independent clauses She gambles and she smokes.
Complex:
an independent + a dependent clause
She eats a lot of vegetables that she usually buys at the market.
Compound–complex: two independent clauses + one dependent clause She eats a lot of hamburgers but her boyfriend, who is more health-conscious, never eats junk food.
Non-standard Happy birthday!

5, Sentence chain level

A sentence can influence the grammar and words we use in other related sentences. The related sentences do not need to be adjacent sentences and don't need to be said by the same person.

Look at this example.
Jane: Have you ever been to Japan? It is a beautiful country.
Mary: Yes, I have.

The word "it" in Jane's second sentence is related to the word "Japan" in her first sentence. The words "I" and "have" in Mary's answer are related to the "you" and the present perfect tense, respectively, in Jane's question.


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